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EUROPEAN ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES AT COMMERCIAL SCALE



This section contains a list/map of advanced biorefineries at commercial scale in Europe. It was created in 2015 and has been deeply rearranged and updated in February 2018. If you have any suggestion (missing facility, biorefinery classification…), please contact the BioRefineries Blog through info@biorefinno.com. This is an open and collaborative effort of dissemination, your contribution is welcome.

As a general criteria, a biorefinery is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy (IEA definition). This definition is very wide and covers multiple concepts. In this sense, facilities making a traditional use of biomass (conventional biofuels plants and pulp mills) can be considered as simple biorefineries. They are out of the scope of this list, which is focused on advanced biorefineries. For a detailed list of European biorefineries, you can check the map developed by Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC) and nova-Institute.

Facilities under construction and planned have been added to the list. The information will be updated in a regular basis. By pressing on each link, you will find a profile summarizing the most relevant information of the plant or news related to them.

The list is divided into three categories according to the main product generated in the facilities:
1. BIOFUEL DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES
Criterion: the main product is an advanced biofuel.
You can check the section ADVANCED BIOFUELS to know more about the definition and the types of biofuels considered.
2. BIOBASED CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES
Criterion: the main product is a biobased chemical platform.
3. BIOMATERIAL DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES
Criteria: multi-product sulphite mills; the new generation of bioproduct mills; nanocellulose biorefineries. 


BIOFUEL DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES

Location
Companies
Biorefinery Classification according to IEA Bioenergy Task 42
Production capacity
Start up
Status
Feedstocks
Products
Platforms
Processes
MAIN PRODUCT: CELLULOSIC ETHANOL.
PRODUCTO PRINCIPAL: ETANOL CELULÓSICO.
Crescentino
(Italy)
Beta Renewables
Agricultural waste (wheat straw, rice straw) and energy crops (Arundo donax, miscanthus).
Ethanol, animal feed, power and heat.
Sugars, lignin.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
50 Ml/y
2012
Shut down (to be confirmed).
Kajaani
(Finland)
St1, SOK (NEB)
Woody biomass (sawdust).
Ethanol and animal feed.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
10 Ml/y
2017
Operational. Expansion planned.
Strazske
(Slovakia)
Energochemica, Beta Renewables
Agricultural waste (wheat straw, rapeseed straw, corn stover) and energy crops (switchgrass).
Ethanol and animal feed.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
70 Ml/y
2018
Under construction (to be confirmed).
Leopoldov
(Slovakia)
Enviral, Clariant
Agricultural waste (wheat straw).
Ethanol, fertilizers, power and heat.
Sugars, lignin, biogas.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
63 Ml/y
2019
Under construction.
Southwestern part of Romania.
Clariant
Agricultural waste (wheat straw and other cereals).
Ethanol, fertilizers, power and heat.
Sugars, lignin, biogas.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
63 Ml/y
2020
Construction due to commence 2018.
Pietarsaari
(Finland)
St1, SOK, NEOT
Woody biomass (forest industry residues).
Ethanol and animal feed.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
50 Ml/y
2020
Investment decision in 2018.
Hønefoss
(Norway)
St1, Vikeng Skog SA
Woody biomass (forest industry residues).
Ethanol and animal feed.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
50 Ml/y
2021
Investment decision in 2018.
Holstebr
(Denmark)
Maabjerg Energy Center (MEC)
Agricultural waste (straw).
Ethanol, fertilizers, power and heat.
Sugars, lignin, biogas.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
73 Ml/y
-
Planned.
MAIN PRODUCT: HIDROTRATED VEGETABLE OILS (HVO).

Porvoo
(Finland)
Neste
Vegetable oils, animal fats, used cooking oils.
Renewable diesel.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
2 x 190 ktons
2007, 2009
Operational.
Rotterdam (The Netherlands)
Neste
Vegetable oils, animal fats, used cooking oils.
Renewable diesel, biopropane.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
1 Mtons
2011
Operational.
Venice
(Italy)
Vegetable oils, animal fats, used cooking oils.
Renewable diesel.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
500 ktons
2014
Operational.
Lappeenranta
(Finland)
UPM Biofuels
Crude talloil.
Renewable diesel.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
100 ktons
2015
Operational.
La Mède
(France)
Total
Vegetable oils, animal fats, used cooking oils.
Renewable diesel.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
500 ktons
2018
Under construction.

Gela
(Italy)
eni
Vegetable oils, animal fats, used cooking oils.
Renewable diesel.
Oil.
Hydrotreatment.
-
2018
Under construction.
MAIN PRODUCT: BIOHYDROCARBONS.
Joensuu
(Finland)
Fortum
Forest residues and other wood based biomass.
Bio-oil and heat and electricity.
Bio-oil.
Pyrolysis.
50 ktons
2013
Operational.
Bogumiłów
(Poland).
Ekobenz
Bioethanol.
Gaseous, liquid  and aromatic biohydrocarbons.
Ethanol.
Catalytic conversion.
22.5 ktons.
2017
Operational.

BIOBASED CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCK DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES

Location
Companies
Biorefinery Classification according to IEA Bioenergy Task 42
Production capacity
Start up
Status
Feedstocks
Products
Platforms
Processes
MAIN PRODUCT: AZELAIC AND PELARGONIC ACIDS.
Matrica
(Italy)
Matrica
(JV between Novamont and Versalis)
Oil-seed from non-food autochthonous crops.
Monomers, rubber additives, biolubrificants and bioplastics.
Oil.
-
- Building blocks: 20 ktons.
- Biodegradable oils: 10 ktons.
- Biopolyesters: 50 ktons.
2014
Operational.
MAIN PRODUCT: 1,4-BUTANEDIOL (BDO).
Bottrighe
(Italy)
Novamont.
Sugar (glucose syrup produced by Cargill).
BDO
Sugars.
Fermentation.
30 ktons
2016
Operational.
MAIN PRODUCT: 2,5-FURANDICARBOXYLIC ACID (FDCA).
Antwerp
(Belgium)
Synvina
(JV between Avantium and BASF).
-
FDCA
Sugars.
Dehydration, oxidation.
50 ktons
2023 - 2024
Planned.
MAIN PRODUCT: LACTIC ACID.
Ireland.
Glanbia Ingredients.
25 ktons (100% dry matter) of whey permeate (WP) and delactosed whey permeate (DLP).
l-Lactic acid, polylactic acid, minerals for human nutrition and biobased fertiliser.
-
-
-
-
Planned.
MAIN PRODUCT: LEVULINIC ACID.
Caserta
(Italy)
GFBiochemicals
Cellulosic biomass.
Levulinic acid.
Sugars.
Acid hydrolysis.
10 ktons
2015
Operational.
MAIN PRODUCT: METHANOL.
Delfzijl
(Netherlands )
BioMCN
Glycerin.
Biomethanol.
Syngas.
Evaporation, reforming.
200 ktons.
2009
Operational.
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Air Liquide, AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals, Enerkem, the Port of Rotterdam
Non-recyclable wastes.
Biomethanol.
Syngas.
Gasification, catalytic synthesis.
220 ktons.
-
Investment decision in 2018.
MAIN PRODUCT: 1,3-PROPANEDIOL (PDO) AND BUTIRIC ACID (BA).
Moselle (France)
METabolic EXplorer
Glycerin.
PDO, BA.
Sugars.
Fermentation.
- 1st stage: 5 kton of PDO and 1 kton of BA.
- 2nd stage: 15 kton of PDO and 3 kton of BA).
2020 - 2021
Construction due to commence 2018.
MAIN PRODUCT: SUCCINIC ACID.
Cassano Spinola
(Italy)
Reverdia
Starch and sugars.
Succinic acid.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
10 ktons
2012
Operational.
Montmeló
(Spain)
Succinity
Glycerol, sugars.
Succinic acid.
Sugars.
Hydrolysis,
Fermentation.
10 ktons
2014
Operational.

BIOMATERIAL DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES

Location
Companies
Biorefinery Classification according to IEA Bioenergy Task 42
Production capacity
Start up
Status
Feedstocks
Products
Platforms
Processes
MAIN PRODUCT: CELLULOSE.

Sarpsborg (Noruega)               
Borregaard
Wood.
Cellulose, lignin, bioethanol, vanillin, biogas.
Cellulose, sugars, lignin, biogás.
Cooking, fermetantion.
160 ktons
1889
Operational.
Lenzing (Austria)
Wood.
Madera.
Cellulosa, furfural, acetic acid, sweetener.
Sugars, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking, extraction.
300 ktons
1892
Operational.
Örnsköldsvik (Sweden)
Wood.
Cellulose, lignin, bioethanol, biogas.
Cellulose, sugars, lignin, biogas.
Cooking, fermetantion.
230 ktons
1903
Operational.
Äänekoski
(Finland)
Wood.
Cellulose, tall oil, turpentine, lignin products and wood fuel. Bioenergy.
Pulp, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking.
1.3 Mtons
2017
Operational.

Kuopio (Finland)
Finnpulp
Wood.
Cellulose and other bioproducts, such as tall oil and turpentine. Bioenergy.
Pulp, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking.
1.2 Mtons
2020
Under construction.
Kemijärvi (Lapland, Finland).
Boreal Bioref Oy
Wood.
Cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, sugars, pine oil, turpentine and soil improvement substances. Bioenergy.
Pulp, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking.
400 ktons
2020
Planned.
Paltamo (Kainuu, Finland).
KaiCell Fibers
Wood.
Cellulose and other bioproducts. Bioenergy.
Pulp, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking.
400 – 500 ktons
2020
Planned.
Potential locations: Tartu or Viljandi County (Estonia).
EST-FOR
Wood.
Cellulose and other bioproducts, hemicellulose and lignin. Bioenergy.
Pulp, lignin, electricity and heat.
Cooking.
700 ktons
2022
Planned.

Sarspborg (Norway).
Borregaard
Wood.
Microfibrillated cellulose.
Pulp.
-
10 ktons of 10% paste (1 kton dry).
2016.
Operational.

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